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    9282020-07-02

    large-scale(形容詞)大規模的

    We used to believe that trees have enormous potential to soak up and store carbon, and that’s why many countries established tree planting campaigns as part of their plans to tackle climate change. However, two papers published in Nature Sustainability showed that rather than benefiting the environment, large-scale tree planting may do the opposite.

    我們以往相信樹木具有吸收及儲存碳的巨大潛力,這也是為什麼許多國家將植樹運動,作為對抗氣候變遷的計畫之一。然而兩篇發表於永續自然期刊的論文指出,植樹運動的結果可能不如想像般的美好,甚至可能有反效果。

    incentivize(動詞) 激勵

    In one study, the researchers found the funds were made to plant monoculture plantations or a limited mix of trees that produce specific products such as fruit or rubber. The result is that the area covered by trees did expand, but the area of native forest was vastly decreasing. “If policies to incentivize tree plantations are poorly designed or enforced, there is a high risk of not only wasting public money but also releasing more carbon and losing biodiversity,” said one author of the study.

    其中一個研究發現,當局資助植樹運動,利益考量,資金大多數都用來種植單一樹種,或混合少量可產出水果或橡膠樹的特定樹種。其結果是: 樹木覆地面積的確增加了,但原始森林面積卻逐漸減少了。其中一位作者指出:「如果鼓勵植樹的政策不當設計或執行不力,那不僅浪費公帑,更會釋放更多的碳,讓生物多樣性逐漸消失。」

    overestimate(動詞)高估

    The second study found that adding new trees did increase the density of organic carbon in carbon poor soils. However, in places where soils were already rich in carbon, adding new trees decreased this density. This conclusion overturns previous assumptions about how much organic carbon can be fixed by planting new trees, which seem like an overestimate.

    第二項研究發現,在較缺乏炭的土壤上種植新樹木,確實會增加土壤有機碳的密度。然而在土壤已富含碳的地方植新樹木,反而會降低碳密度。這個結果大大顛覆了以往的假設,以往大家認為種多少樹木就能有相對有機碳的說法,恐怕是高估了樹木的儲碳能力。

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